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(The following list forms part of the article on International Congresses and
Conferences of the last century as forces working towards the solidarity of the
world, by the Honorable Simeon E. Baldwin, which is printed at page 565 of this
List of memorable international conferences, congresses, or asso-
ciations of official representatives of governments, exclusive of those
mainly concerned in dealing' with the results of a particular war.
1826. Congress of Panama, June 22 to July 15. Four powers repre-
sented. Favored the abolition of privateering. Adopted a scheme for
biennial congresses of the same powers (and annual ones in time of war),
which was not ratified.
1830-1831. Conference of London (began December 30) between five
powers establishing the perpetual neutrality of Belgium.
1847-1848. Congress of Lima (December 11 to July 8) to form an
alliance of American republics. Five powers represented. A confedera-
tion agreed on, and a postal convention, but never ratified. 1
1851. First International Sanitary Conference, held at Paris. Twelve
powers represented. A convention affecting the navigation of the Medi-
terranean executed by five powers. Later conferences held in Paris in
1859; Florence, 1867; Vienna, 1874; Washington, 1881; Eome, 1885;
Venice, 1892; Paris, 1893 and 1897.
1853. Maritime Conference for the Adoption of a Uniform System
of Meteorological Observations at Sea. Held at Brussels, August 23 to
September 8, on the initiative of the United States.
1853. General Conference as to Statistics, held at Brussels, on the
initiative of Belgium. Twenty-six powers were represented. A perma-
nent international bureau set up, at Eome, since 1885 (Institut inter-
national de Statistique) . Publishes a bulletin. Meets biennially.
1856. Congress of Santiago as to a Continental Treaty of Alliance.
Three powers represented. Treaty signed, ad referendum, but never
1 Calvo, Droit Int., I, 85.
' Calvo, Droit Int., I, 89.
1857. Conference of Copenhagen to capitalize the Sound Dues
claimed by Denmark. Sixteen powers represented. Agreement with
Denmark reached, to which most of the maritime powers acceded, she
receiving 35,000,000 rix-dollars.
1861. Conference at Hanover to secure the Abolition of the Tax by
Hanover on the Navigation of the Elbe. Seventeen powers represented.
Convention signed commuting Hanoverian right for about 2,800,000
1863. Conference of London between five powers to guarantee the
neutrality of the United States of the Ionian Islands, after their reunion
1863. Conference of Brussels, July 15, to compound with the Nether-
lands for the Free Navigation of the Scheldt. Convention signed by
twenty-one powers, for composition of about 17,000,000 florins.
1863. Congress of German sovereigns (Prussia excepted) at Frank-
fort, August 16. Project of Austria for one federal state considered.
1863. Conference of Paris on a Postal Union. Led to that of Berne
1863. Conference of four powers on Sugar Duties.
1864. Conference of Geneva, August 20, as to promoting humanity
in war. Sixteen powers represented. Eesulted in the Geneva Con-
ventions of 1864 and 1868 as to the Eed Cross, between thirty-one
powers. A permanent international committee established. Eighth
" International Eed Cross Conference " held in London in June, 1907.
1864. Congress of Lima, October 28 to November 14, to abolish war
in South America, substitute arbitration, and devise an alliance. Eight
powers represented. Treaty of alliance signed, but never ratified. 8
1864. First International Conference on "Weights and Measures.
Held at Berlin. Fourteen powers attended. An international central
bureau established at Berlin under charge of a permanent commission,
meeting annually. Twenty-seven powers now adhere to it.
1864. Conference of London as to Marine Signalling.
1864. Conference of Paris as to Marine Signalling.
1865. Monetary Conference of Paris, resulting, December 23, in the
Latin Monetary Union, between four powers, lasting till 1886. Con-
ference of Paris in 1885 of four powers substituted (November 6)
'Calvo, Droit Int., I, 89.
810 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
1865. Conference of Paris on Telegraphic Correspondence. Twenty
powers were represented. A convention was agreed on, and afterwards
ratified, constituting " L'Union telegraphique universelle." Similar
conferences followed, in 1865 at Vienna, in 1871 at Berne, in 1875 at
St. Petersburg, in 1879 at London, in 1882 at Paris, in 1883 at Berlin.
A permanent bureau was set up at Berne in 1869, and is still maintained.
It is in correspondence with forty bureaus of as many different states,
and over twenty private corporations. It issues an official Gazette,
Le Journal Telegraphique.
1866. Conference of Paris as to the Navigation of the Danube.
Confirmed the work as to neutralization by the European commission
(see art. 108 et seq. of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna of 1815).
1867. Monetary Conference of Paris. Twenty-two powers repre-
sented. The five franc piece recommended as the monetary unit.
1867. Conference of London, between eight powers, to neutralize
1868. Conference at Geneva, to extend the operation of the Geneva
Convention of 1864 to naval warfare.
1868. Parliament of the Zollverein at Berlin, April 27 to May 23.
All the associated states represented.
1868. The International Military Commission met at St. Petersburg
to consider Rules of War. Nineteen powers represented. The " Decla-
ration of St. Petersburg " adopted. Use of explosive bullets condemned.
1869. Conference of Paris on the Cretan Question, January and
1870. International Commission on the Metric System, first met at
Paris. Thirty powers represented. At a subsequent meeting in 1875,
a convention agreed to, May 20, setting up at Paris an International
Bureau of Weights and Measures (Le Bureau du Metre) to be main-
tained by pro rata contributions from the contracting powers, and man-
aged by a permanent international committee of one from each power,
1871. Conference of London to consider the questions arising out
of the neutralization of the Black Sea by the treaty of Paris of 1856.
Its neutralization abrogated by a convention signed March 13. Six
1872. Conference of the International Telegraphic Commission at
Eome. Convention signed January 14 by twenty-one powers.
1873. Monetary Conference at Copenhagen. Three powers repre-
sented. The Scandinavian Monetary Union formed May 27.
1874. Conference of Berne, September 15, on a Postal Union. Ee-
sulted in a convention forming one (October 9). Permanent inter-
national bureau maintained at Berne since 1875, which is in corre-
spondence with about fifty postal administrations of different powers.
Congresses of delegates from the powers adhering to the convention met
quinquennially to perfect and improve the union, but in case of need
special international conferences may be called with the consent of two-
thirds of the powers adhering. That of 1891, at Vienna, acted on the
subject of international telephony. An official journal published
monthly in three languages, L' Union Postale.
1874. Conference of Brussels to establish Bules of War. Attended
by most of the European powers. Called by Bussia. Promulgated a
project for a code of rules as having been " discussed " (" The Declara-
tion of Brussels"), but they were neither adopted nor ratified.
1874. Monetary Conference of Paris between five powers.
1874. Conference of Paris as to Submarine Telegraph Cables. Con-
vention signed, March 14, by twenty-eight powers.
1875. Congress of International Telegraphy, at St. Petersburg.
International convention agreed on, December 21, between sixteen powers.
1876. Conference Geographique Internationale of Brussels. Seven
powers participated. Created the " Association internationale Africaine."
1876-1877. Conference of Constantinople on the Eastern Question.
1876-1877. Monetary Conference at Paris between five powers.
1877. Congress of Lima on Uniform Bules of Private International
Law ; called on the initiative of Peru. Met Dec. 9. Nine powers partici-
pated. Extradition treaty drafted.
1878. Conference at Berne to provide against the Phylloxera. Con-
vention signed by seven powers, September 17, ad referendum, setting up
a permanent bureau at Berne. Five ratified it.
1878. Conference of Berlin on the Eastern Question. Treaty signed
by seven powers, making Boumania and Servia kingdoms.
1878. Le Congres International de la Propriete Industrielle. Met
at Paris, and again, by adjournment, in 1880. Beconvened in 1883,
when ten powers were represented, and formed an International Union
for the Protection of Industrial Property, with a permanent bureau at
Berne. A convention for this purpose was confirmed at Berne in 1886,
and ratified by many of the powers, going into effect in 1887.
1878. Monetary Diplomatic Conference at Paris, held on the initia-
tive of the United States. Twelve powers represented. It set up a
permanent international bureau in Berne.
812 THE AMEKICAN JOUKNAL OF INTEKNATIONAL LAW
1879. Conference of London as to International Telegraphy. Con-
vention signed by nineteen powers, July 28.
1881. Conference of Berne to regulate railroad transportation. Con-
vention agreed on at a later conference at Berne in 1890, and ratified by
ten powers. Central bureau at Berne. Publishes a " Zeitschrift fiir den
1881. Monetary Diplomatic Conference at Paris, held on the initia-
tive of Prance and the United States. Fifteen powers represented.
Adjourned July 8 to April 12, 1882. The powers agreed not to recon-
1882. Conference of Paris as to the neutralization of submarine tele-
graph cables. Convention agreed to, ad referendum, but not ratified.
1882. Conference at The Hague as to the Police of the North Sea
fisheries. Six powers represented. International Fisheries Convention
agreed to, May 6.
1883. Conference of London (February 2 to March 10) on the
Navigation of the Danube. Convention agreed to, March 10, approving
rules established by the permanent European Commission on the Danube.
1883. Conference of Brussels as to the Exchange of Official and
Scientific Documents. Met again in 1886 and framed a convention,
establishing a bureau of international exchanges, which eleven powers
1884. Conference of Paris for the Protection of Submarine Tele-
graph Cables. Twenty-five powers represented. A convention was
agreed to March 14, but reserved all rights of belligerents. Since rati-
fied by twenty-eight powers. Went into effect May 1, 1888.
1884. Conference of Washington on a Prime Meridian. Adopted
that of Greenwich.
1884-1885. The Conference of Berlin, November 15 to February 26,
as to West African Affairs. Fourteen powers represented. A perma-
nent international convention established to secure the free navigation of
the Congo river. Conferences have been held since, in 1889 and 1890,
1885. International Congress of Commercial Law (otherwise styled
Le Congres International de Droit International) of Antwerp, Septem-
ber 27, called by Belgium. Considered the subjects of railroad trans-
portation, international exchange, and a maritime code. Was adjourned
first to September, 1887, and then to Brussels in September, 1888, to
complete its work. Agreed on a draft code at Brussels in 1888.
1885. Conference of Paris as to the Freedom of Trade through the
Suez Canal. Eight powers represented. A permanent international
commission has been established with its seat at Paris.
1886. Conference of Brussels as to Exchanges of Official Documents.
Convention for the purpose agreed on in May. The Argentine Kepublic
adhered in 1902. 4
1886. Conference of Berne, between ten powers, on Literary and
Artistic Property. Jt constituted a " Union internationale pour la pro-
tection des oeuvres litteraires et artistiques," with a permanent inter-
national bureau at Berne, consolidated in 1892 with that for the pro-
tection of industrial property. Hungary acceded to the union in 1906.
Publishes a monthly journal, Le Droit d'Auteur.
1887. Conference of London as to abolition of Sugar Duties. Con-
vention signed in 1888.
1887. Conference as to the Liquor Traffic on the North Sea. Con-
vention adopted November 16, 1887.
1888. Congress of Constantinople to regulate the use of the Suez
Canal. Thirteen powers represented. Treaty concluded, in October,
between six powers.
1888. Congress of Paris as to Sugar Bounties, April, May, and
1888-1889. Congress Sud-Americano de Derecho Internacional
Privado, at Montevideo. Seven powers represented. Eight draft
treaties adopted. Spain in 1893 adhered ad referendum. 9
1888-1890. Union internationale pour le Publication des Tarifs
Douaniers; formed at Brussels. Most of the civilized powers adhere.
A permanent bureau at Brussels publishes bulletins in five languages.
1889. Conference of three powers, at Berlin, on Samoan Islands.
Convention for their neutralization and police agreed on.
1889. Conference of St. Petersburg as to International Telegraphy.
1889. Conference of London on Sugar Duties. Eight powers repre-
sented. Nothing accomplished.
1889. Conference of Berne, in September, to promote the well-being
of the Working Classes.
1889. International Marine Congress as to Uniform Eules to Secure
Life and Property at Sea, or " International Maritime Congress," held
at Washington, on the call of the United States, October 16 to December
yi. Twenty-seven nations represented. Considered co-operative plans
'Annuaire de Legislation Etrangere, XXXII, 749.
6 Reference to several of the prior congresses on this subject, held in 1872,
1873, 1875, 1876, 1877, and 1887, has not been made, as they were fruitless. See
the Archives Diplomatiques, 3d series, 1901, II, 169.
* Torres Campos, " Elementos de Derecho Internacional," 3d ed. 141.
814 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
for destroying floating derelicts and for preventing collisions. Rules
adopted which went into effect July 1, 1897. Pronounced against a
permanent international maritime commission.
1889-1890. Conference for the Suppression of the Slave Trade.
Held at Brussels, November 18 to July 2, on call of Belgium. Inter-
national bureau set up at Brussels in 1890. General Act adopted July
2, 1890, by seventeen powers, ad referendum.
1890. Conference of Brussels formed L'TJnion pour le Publication
des Tarifs Douaniers. Has a permanent seat at Berne. Publishes a
1890. Conference at Berlin, March 15 to 29, called on the initiative
of Germany, for the Protection of Labor in Factories and Mines. Pour-
teen powers represented. A protocol agreed on recommending legislation.
1890. Conference at Brussels to regulate affairs in the Congo State.
Prohibitory rules as to sale of spirituous liquors established, and since
ratified by seventeen powers.
1890. First Pan-American Conference at Washington, October 2,
1889, to April 19, 1890. Adopted international arbitration as a prin-
ciple of American international law. Draft treaty to that effect signed,
ad referendum, by eleven powers, but never ratified by any. Established
the International Bureau of the American Eepublics at Washington.
Publishes a bulletin.
1890. Conference at Berne as to Eailroad Transportation. Nine
powers represented. Convention agreed to, October 14, establishing a
permanent bureau at Berne, publishing a monthly journal. Went into
effect January 1, 1893.
1890. Conference at Stockholm as to Fisheries in the North Sea.
Second meeting at Christiania in 1901. Central council established at
Copenhagen. Nine powers represented.
1892. Monetary Congress of Brussels on the initiative of the United
States. Nothing accomplished.
1892. Le Congres International de Droit Maritime of Genoa.
1893. International Sanitary Conference at Dresden, March 11 to
April 15, for the Eepression of Epidemic Diseases. Twenty powers
represented. Convention signed, ad referendum.
1893. Monetary Conference of the five powers of the Latin Union at
Paris, October 15 to November 15.
1893. First Conference of The Hague on Private International Law.
Thirteen European powers represented. Four conventions agreed on.
1894. Second Conference of The Hague on Private International
Law. Fifteen powers represented.
1894. International Sanitary Conference at Paris, February 7 to
April 3. Sixteen powers attended. Regulations adopted to prevent
spread of cholera, with special reference to pilgrimages to Mecca.
Portugal adhered to them in 1898.
1894. Conference of Berne, September 25 to October 3, as to the
Publication of Treaties by a governmental union created for that pur-
pose. Eighteen powers represented. Fourteen others expressed
sympathy. Nothing accomplished.
1895. Monetary Conference of Paris.
1896. The International Maritime Committee formed. Fifth meet-
ing at Hamburg in 1902.
1896. Conference of Paris on the Protection of Artistic and Literary
Property. Most of the powers attended. Convention of Berne revised.
1897. Conference of Paris as to Ocean Telegraphy.
1897. Sanitary Conference at Venice, February 16 to March 19, to
take measures against the Plague. Convention adopted March 19.
Signed by seventeen powers. Switzerland adhered in 1898.
1898. Conference on Sugar Taxes at Brussels, June 7 to 25. Nine
powers represented. Adjourned to December 16, 1901, and again to
January 20, 1902. Convention signed.
1899. Conference at Brussels to regulate Liquor Traffic in Africa.
Most of the leading powers in the world attended. Adopted, June 8, a
measure of repression by heavy taxes, which was generally ratified.
1899. Conference of Peace at The Hague, May 18 to July 29.
Twenty-seven powers represented. Three conventions adopted and The
Hague Tribunal instituted. A permanent " International Bureau "
established at The Hague (Art. XXII), under the direction of a perma-
nent " Administrative Council " (Art. XXVIII) .
1900. Third Conference of The Hague on Private International Law.
1900. Conference of St. Petersburg as to International Telephony.
1900. Conference of Brussels as to Abolition of Sugar Duties.
1900. Social and Economic Spanish-American Congress of Madrid in
November. Sixteen powers represented, including Portugal. Resolu-
tions looking to close economic and social relations between them adopted.
A permanent executive commission created.
1901-1902. Conference of Mexico of eight powers, October — to
January 29. Convention agreed to, ad referendum, to submit all diffi-
816 THE AMERICAN JOUEKAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
eulties that may arise between them to The Hague tribunal, or to a
special arbitration commission, if either party prefer. Uruguay ratified
in October, 1902. 7
1902. General Sanitary and International Conference of the Ameri-
can Eepublics, organized at Washington, December 2-4.
1902. International Conference at Paris to repress the White Slave
Trade (la Traite des Blanches). Fifteen powers represented.
1902. International Conference at Brussels as to the Regulation and
Production of Sugar. A convention adopted, and a standing Inter-
national Sugar Commission created, meeting semi-annually. Permanent
bureau at Brussels.
1902. Central American Peace Congress at Corinto. Pour powers
attended. A convention to promote peace between the Central American
republics, signed by all. Convention adopted January 20 establishing
the Central American Tribunal of Arbitration, since ratified by all.
Tribunal met at San Salvador in February, 1907.
1902. Conference internationale pour l'unification de la formule des
Medicaments heroiques, held at Brussels, September 15-20. Nineteen
1903. Conference of Berlin on Wireless Telegraphy, August 4-13.
Eight powers represented. Convention signed by seven powers.
1903. International Sanitary Convention of Paris. Convention
signed December 3.
1904. Fourth Conference at The Hague on Private International
Law, May 16 to June 7. Fifteen powers represented. Four new con-
ventions proposed. An official bulletin published since 1906 descriptive
of the work of these conferences.
1904. Congress of Zurich, in May, to repress the White Slave Trade
(Congres International de la Traite des Blanches). Fifteen powers
represented. Treaty adopted and ratified by twelve powers (Brazil one),
which went into effect July 18, 1905. Third Conference held in Paris
on October 22-24, 1906.
1905. International Congress of Agriculture at Rome (May 28).
Forty-one powers represented. Agreed to a convention for the forma-
tion of an International Institute of Agriculture, with seat at Rome.
A number of powers in Europe and America have since ratified it.
1905. Second General International Sanitary Convention of the
American Republics at Washington, October 9-i4. Thirteen powers
' Anmiaire de Legislation Etrangere, XXXII, 744.
1905. International Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Law, held
at Brussels, February 21-25 and September-October. Thirteen powers
represented. Projects of conventions on " abordage et sauvetage"
1905. International Diplomatic Conference regarding Labor Pro-
tection, held in Berne, May 8-17. Attended by the principal European
powers, excepting Bussia. Eecommended factory regulation by the
prohibition of the use of white phosphorus in matches and of night work
for women. A second Conference at Berne, September 17-26, 1906,
agreed on conventions to this effect. Seven powers signed that as to
phosphorus, and fourteen that as to women, ad referendum.
1906. Conference at Geneva, June 11 to July 6, to revise the Con-
vention of 1864 as to Humanity in War. Thirty-five powers represented.
Convention agreed to, July 6, by all, ad referendum.
1906. Conference of Brussels on the Liquor Traffic in Africa. Con-
vention agreed to by eleven powers.
1906. Algeciras Conference. Thirteen powers represented. An
international Moroccan police established.
1906. Third Pan-American Congress. Met at Bio de Janeiro July
23 to August 27. Eecommended the establishment of two bureaus for
the protection of industrial property, one at Bio de Janeiro and one at
Havana, and the consideration of the " Drago " doctrine at The Hague
Conference of 1907.
1906. Conference de Paz Centro-Amerieano at San Jose, September
15-25. Four powers represented. Agreed to convention establishing a
Central American bureau in Guatemala and a Central American Peda-
gogical Institute in Costa Biea, which two powers have since ratified;
also to a general treaty of alliance and commerce, since ratified by one.
1906. Conference of Berlin on International Wireless Telegraphy (zur
Begelung der Funkentelegraphie), October 3 to November 3. Twenty-
six powers represented. Convention signed. Disputes to be the subject
of arbitration. International bureau established.
1906. Conference at Brussels as to Unifying Formulas of Potent
Drugs. Twenty powers represented. All signed a convention to that
end November 29.
1907. Second Conference of Peace at The Hague on June 15.
List of the more important international congresses, conferences
or associations of the past century, composed of private individuals. 8
•In preparing this list I have been much aided by the information contained
in Les Beiges et la Paix by Louis Frank, Silver in Europe, by S. Dana Horton,
and the card catalogue of the Astor Library, New York. So far as I know no
818 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
AGRICULTURE AND BOTANY
Le Congres International de l'Alimentation Nationale du Betail. Held
at Antwerp in 1894. Met again at Paris, June, 1906.
Le Congres International Agricole. Held at Paris in 1906.
Le Congres International d' Arboriculture. Held at Paris in 1900.
International Cotton Congress. Held at Vienna May 27, 1907.
International Congress on Plant Breeding. Third meeting held at
London, July 30, 1906.
International Congress of Horticulture and Botany. Held at Brussels
in 1864. Twelfth (quinquennial) meeting at Vienna in 1905.
International Conference at Lausaune in 1877 for the Extermination
of the Phylloxera. Led to the diplomatic conference of Berne in 1878.
International Congress of Pomology, at Namur, in 1862.
La Federation Aeronautique Internationale. Organized at Berlin,
October 15, 1906. Next meeting at Brussels, September, 1907.
International Congress of the Atmosphere. Held at Antwerp in 1894.
International Congress of Americanists. Organized at Nancy in 1875.
Fifteenth meeting held at Quebec in 1906.
Congress cientifico latino americano. Met at Buenos Ayres in 1898,
Montevideo in 1901, Eio de Janeiro, August 5-17, 1903.
Latin American Medical Congress. Third (bi-ennial) meeting at
Montevideo, March 18, 1907.
International Congress of Chambers of Commerce. Met at Milan,
September 24, 1906.
International Congress of Commerce and Industry, organized in Brus-
sels in 1880. Last meeting at Ostend in 1902.
International Maritime Congress, held at Naples in 1871.
International Congress on General Average. Held at Glasgow in
1860, London in 1862, and York in 1864. The " York rules " adopted
at the last.
general list either of public or private congresses has ever been hitherto prepared.
Both those now published may be expected to have the imperfections incident to
statistical work in a new field.
International Congress of Railroads; first met at Brussels, August
8-15, 1885. Seventh meeting at Washington in 1905. Publishes a
monthly bulletin in two languages.
L'Union internationale des Tramways et des Chemins de Per d'interet
local. Organized at Brussels in 1885. Thirteenth meeting at Vienna
Le Congres International des Societes par Actions. Met at Paris in
1889, June 12-19.
CRIMES AND PRISONS
Le Congres Penitentiarire Internationale, organized in 1846 as Le
Congres Penitentiaire, at Frankfort on the Main. Has a permanent
bureau at Berne. About thirty powers now send official delegates to its
meetings, but it has no functions of a diplomatic nature. Tenth (quin-
quennial) meeting at Budapest in 1905.
International Congress for the Study of Questions relative to the
Patronage of Convicts and Protection of Children Morally Abandoned.
International Congress of Criminal Anthropology. Meets statedly.
The International Union of Criminal Law. Formed at Brussels in
1889. Tenth meeting at Hamburg in 1905.
International Congress of Commercial Education. Held at Antwerp
International Congress of Instruction. Held at Brussels in 1880.
International Association for the Advancement of Sciences, Arts, and
Education. Second meeting held at Glasgow, 1901.
International Congress of Students. Held at Liege in 1865.
International Educational Conference of Paris. Held in 1884.
International Congress of Education and the Protection of Childhood
in the Family. Held at Liege, 1905.
ELECTRICITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
International Electrical Congress (Society Internationale des Elec-
trieiens). Met in Paris in 1881; at St. Louis, 1904.
International Congress of Sea Fisheries. Met at Dieppe in 1898.
820 THE AMEEICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
International Congress of Geography. Held at Antwerp in 1871,
Eighth meeting at Washington in 1904.
International Geological Congress. Tenth meeting at Mexico, Septem-
ber 6-14, 1906.
International Geodetic Association. Organized at Berlin in 1864.
Fifteenth (triennial) meeting held at Budapest, September 20-28, 1906.
Central bureau. International convention agreed to in 1895 to run
International Congress for the Study of the Polar Begions. Met at
Brussels in 1906 (September 10). Instituted a permanent international
commission for the purpose.
The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Met at
Amsterdam, February 27, 1906.
THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS.
International Congress to Study the Industrial Uses of Alcohol, held
at Paris, 1903.
International Association for the Protection of Industrial Property.
Ninth Congress at Milan, September 14-16, 1906.
International Congress of Contractors. Held at Liege in 1881.
International Patent Congress of Vienna in 1873.
International Association for Testing Materials. Last (triennial)
meeting at Brussels, September 3, 1906.
International Congress for the Study of Questions relative to
Alcoholism. Held at Brussels in 1880.
International Congress against the Abuse of Alcoholic Drinks.
Organized at Antwerp in 1885. Tenth meeting at Budapest in 1905.
International Congress on Breweries. Held at Brussels in 1880.
International League against Alcoholism.
International Congress of Employees. Held at Brussels in 1903.
Third meeting at London (April 14), 1906.
International Congress of Working Glovers. Held at Brussels in 1892.
International Association for Labor Legislation. Founded at Paris
in 1900. Has a permanent bureau in Basel since 1901. Issues a
monthly bulletin. Is aided by most governments by annual grants.
Fourth meeting September 27-29, 1906, at Geneva.
Le Congres International de Legislation du Travail. Held at Brussels
in 1897. Publishes a year-book.
International Congress of Textile Workmen. Held at Ghent in 1895.
Permanent bureau set up.
International Congress on the Unemployed. Met at Milan, September
International Workingmen's Association. Founded in 1864 at Lon-
don. Dissolved in 1872 at The Hague.
Miners' International Congress. Seventeenth meeting at London,
June 5, 1906.
Le Congres International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances
Sociales, held in Paris in 1889. Last meeting at Vienna, 1905.
Le Congres International de Travailleurs de Voies Ferrees. Held at
International Celtic Conference. Held at St. Briene in 1867.
International Esperanto Congress. First meeting at Boulogne in 1905.
International Oriental Congress. Has stated meetings.
Le Congres International des Avocats. Met at Brussels in 1897;
second meeting at Liege in 1905.
L' Association Internationale des Avocats. First met at Liege, 1905.
LTnstitut de Droit International. Founded in 1873. Meeting at
Ghent, September 1, 1907. Meets next at Florence in 1908.
International Law Association. Twenty-third Conference to be at
Portland, August 29, 1907. The " York rules " revised at its Antwerp
meeting in 1877, and now generally used in commerce by the name of the
" York- Antwerp Eules."
International Congress on the Study of the Transfer of Eeal Estate.
Held at Paris, August 8-14, 1889.
International Conference on the Codification of Maritime Law. Sec-
ond meeting held at Paris, October 16, 1905.
822 THE AMEEICAN JOTJENAL OF INTEENATIONAL LAW
International Congress of Maritime and Commercial Law. Held at
Antwerp in 1885. Last meeting at Paris in 1889.
International Congress of Maritime Law. Met at Geneva, September
26 to October 5, 1892.
International Maritime Committee (for the Unification of Maritime
Law) . Constituted at Brussels in 1897. Seventh meeting at Liverpool
International Congress on Private International Law. Held at Paris
in 1900. Created a standing commission to organize an Institute of
Publication of Laws and Decisions.
The International Congress of Comparative Legislation. Held at
Paris in 1900.
Congress of Jurisconsults at Lima in 1878.
The Juridical Congress of Lisbon. Held in 1888.
Universal Congress of Jurists and Lawyers. Met at St. Louis in 1904.
LITEEATUKE AND THE FINE AETS
L' Association Litteraire et Artistique Internationale. Eighteenth
meeting at Bucharest in 1906.
Le Congres International de TArt Public. Organized at Brussels in
1898. Third meeting at Liege, September 15, 1905.
International Congress concerning Literary and Artistic Property.
Met at Brussels in 1858. United in 1889 with 1' Association Litteraire
et Artistique Internationale. Bureau set up at Berne in 1886.
International Congress for Exchanges of Artistic Eeproduction.
Held at Brussels in 1885.
International Bibliographic Conference. Held at Brussels in 1895.
Permanent bureau there. Publishes a bulletin and a year-book.
International Convention of the International Catalogue of Scientific
Literature. Second (quinquennial) meeting at London, July 25, 1905.
Has thirty-two affiliated " regional bureaus " in as many countries.
Das internationale Institut fur Sozial-Bibliographie. Organized at
Berlin in August, 1905.
International Congress of Librarians. Met at Paris, March 8, 1903.
International Literary Congress. Founded in 1878. Twenty-seventh
meeting at Liege in 1905.
MEDICINE, SURGEBY, AND PHYSIOLOGY
International Congress of Dentistry. Held at Paris in 1889, Septem-
International Dermatological Congress. Sixth meeting at Paris in
International Congress of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Held at Brus-
sels in 1892. Fifth meeting at St. Petersburg in 1905.
International Congress on the Care of the Insane. Has met at Ant-
werp and Milan.
International Congress of Medicine. Fifteenth meeting held in
Lisbon (April 19), 1906; next to be at Budapest in 1909.
International Association of Medical Examiners for Insurance Com-
panies. Formed at Brussels in 1901. Fourth meeting at Berlin in 1906.
Publishes a bulletin.
International Congress of Ophthalmology. Organized at Brussels in
1857. Tenth meeting at Lucerne, 1904.
International Congress of Physiology. Seventh triennial meeting at
Heidelberg, August 13, 1907.
International Congress for Psychiatry, Neurology, Psychology, and
the Care of the Insane. First meeting to be at Amsterdam, September
La Societe International de Prophylaxie Sanitaire et Morale. Organ-
ized at Brussels in 1902.
International Congress for the Prevention of Tuberculosis. Met at
The Hague in 1906. (September 6).
The American International Congress on Tuberculosis. Organized
in New York in 1900. Met there November 14-16, 1906. To meet at
Washington in 1908.
International Sanitary Convention. Organized at Paris in 1851.
Twelfth meeting at Washington in October, 1905.
International Surgical Congress. Second meeting at Brussels, Sep-
Der Internationale Doppel-Wahrungs Verein. Founded in 1881.
International Congress on Bimetallism. Met at Paris in 1889. Ten
powers sent official delegates, but the large majority of those attending
were private individuals.
824 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
International Congress of Navigation. Met at Diisseldorf in 1902.
International Congress of Internal Navigation. Held at Brussels in
1885. Tenth meeting at Milan in 1905.
International Congress ' to Fix Rules for Eating Yachts. Met at
London in 1906.
PEACE AND ARBITRATION
International Arbitration League. Established in 1870 at London as
the " Workman's Peace Association." Permanent bureau at London.
L'Association Internationale d'Arbitrage et de Paix.
Le Congres de 1' Alliance Universelle de l'Ordre et de la Civilisation.
Met at Paris in 1872, and established a standing commission to promote
The Nobel Institute. Instituted in 1904 under will of Alfred Nobel.
L'Institut international de la Paix at Monaco. Pounded in 1903 by
the Prince of Monaco.
International Peace Congress, held at London in 1843.
Universal Peace Congress. Organized in Brussels, September 20-22,
1848, as the " Congres des Amis de la Paix." Fifteenth meeting at
Milan, September 15-22, 1906. Central bureau at Berne since 1891.
International Congress of Public Charities. Held at Paris, July 28
to August 4, 1889.
International Congress of Public Assistance and Beneficence. Or-
ganized at Brussels in 1856. Seventh meeting at Paris in 1900.
International Congress for the Amelioration of the Lot of the Blind.
Held at Brussels in 1902.
La Societe International de Prophylaxie Sanitaire et Morale.
Organized at Brussels in 1902.
International Congress for Aid to Injured Cyclists. Held at Brussels
International Congress for the Protection and Welfare of Children.
Fourth meeting held at Berlin, May 22, 1907.
International Congress for the Assistance of the Insane. Held at
Antwerp in 1902.
International Congress of Hygiene and Demography. Fourteenth
meeting at Berlin September 23-29, 1907.
International Congress for the Promotion of Hygiene and Salubrity
in Dwellings. Second meeting held at Geneva, September 4, 1906.
Le Congres Scientifique International des Institutions de Prevoyance.
Founded at Paris in 1878.
International Eeform Bureau. Has a permanent bureau at Washing-
International Conference of Paris on Works of Assistance in Time of
International Conference at Geneva in 1863, to provide for the better
care of the wounded in battle. Led to the Diplomatic Conference of
Geneva in 1864, and to the International Conference of the National
Societies of the Eed Cross. Has established a permanent International
Eed Cross Committee at Geneva. Eighth meeting of Conference at
London in June, 1907.
International Congress of Firemen. Held at Liege in 1901. Tenth
meeting at Milan in 1906.
International Congress for the Protection of Works of Art and Monu-
ments. Held at Paris, June 24-29, 1889.
POLITICAL OR RACIAL
The Frankfort " Preliminary Convention " of March 31-April 4,
1848, which practically forced the Federal Diet to adopt a policy of
The National Assembly of Germans, opened at Frankfort, May 16,
The Pan-Slavic Congress of Prague in 1848. Held to promote a
Slavic political union.
The National Union (Kleindeutsch) of 1859.
The Eeform Union (Grossdeutschen) of 1862.
Spanish-American Juridical Congress of Madrid. Held in November,
LTnstitut Colonial International. Founded at Brussels in 1894.
Ninth meeting at Eome in 1905. Has a permanent bureau at Brussels.
826 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
International Congress of Editors. Fifth meeting at Milan (June 5),
International Congress of the Press. Met at Antwerp in 1894. Tenth
meeting at Liege in 1905.
International Chaplains' Association. Organized at Budapest in Sep-
International Congress of Free Thinkers. Organized at Brussels in
1880. Last meeting at Borne in 1904.
World's Christian Student Federation. Seventh (biennial) meeting
at Tokio, April 13, 1907.
World's Parliament of Beligions. Held at Chicago in 1893.
International Congress of Beligious Liberals. Fourth meeting to be
held at Boston, September 22-27, 1907. About fifty religious associa-
tions are affiliated with it, including three from India.
The alliance of the Beformed Churches, holding the Presbyterian
System (otherwise known as the Pan-Presbyterian Council). Organized
at London in 1875. Meets quinquennially.
World's Christian Student Federation Conference. Met at Tokio,
The CEcumenical Methodist Conference. First meeting at New York,
1892. Meets decennially.
The Lambeth Conference of Bishops of the Anglican Communion.
First held in 1867, at Lambeth.
The Vatican Council. 1869, 1870.
The World's Council of Congregationalists. Second meeting at Boston
in 1899. Next in Edinburgh, June 30, 1908.
Evangelical Alliance. Founded in London in 1846. Established
" The International Conference of Evangelical Alliances," which holds
its eleventh meeting in London, July 3, 1907.
International Association of Academies. Established in 1899, on
initiative of Boyal Society of London. Has a permanent central bureau.
Third (triennial) meeting in Vienna, in 1907. Organized into several
International Congress of Actuaries. Met at Brussels in 1895. Fourth
meeting at New York in 1903. Permanent bureau at Brussels. Pub-
lishes a bulletin.
International Congress of Anthropology and Prehistoric Archaelogy
Next (annual) meeting at Strasburg, August 4-8, 1907.
International Archaeological Congress. Next meeting at Alexandria,
The Congress of Arts and Sciences at St. Louis in 1904. Eight vol-
umes of proceedings published.
International Congress of Applied Chemistry. Sixth meeting at Eome,
May 5, 1906.
International Congress of Chronometry. Held in Paris, 1900.
International Economic Congress. Met at London, January 10, 1907.
International Engineering Congress. Held at Chicago, 1893.
International Ethical Conference. Met at Eisenach, July 4, 1906.
Has organized an International Union of Ethical Societies.
International Federation of Free Thought. Permanent bureau set up
at Eome in 1904.
International Historical Congress (Internationaler Kongress fur his-
torische Wissenschaften) . Next meeting at Berlin, August 6-12, 1908.
International Congress of Hygiene and Demography. Organized at
Brussels in 1876. Fourteenth meeting at Berlin, September 23, 1907.
International Congress of Mathematicians. Fourth meeting at Eome,
April 6, 1908.
International Meteorological Conference. Third meeting held at Inns-
bruck in September, 1905.
International Congress of Philosophy. Met at Geneva in 1904; at
Paris in 1906.
International Congress of Photography. Met at Paris in 1889, Au-
International Society of Physicists. Met at Paris, 1900.
International Congress of Psychology. Fifth meeting at Eome in
International Congress of Eadiology. First meeting at Liege in 1905.
International Scientific Congress. Organized at Paris in 1879.
828 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
International Seismological Association. Has a permanent bureau at
International Union for Co-operation in Solar Eesearch. Met at
Meudon in 1907. Central bureau at University of Manchester; comput-
ing bureau at that of Oxford.
International Statistical Institute. Established in 1885, at London.
Tenth meeting held in 1905.
International Congress of Co-operative Socialist Societies. Held at
Brussels in 1901.
Le Congres International Ouvrier Socialiste. Organized at Brussels
in 1891. Permanent bureau there since 1900.
International Socialist Congress. Met at Brussels June 9, 1907.
SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
International Co-operative Alliance. Organized at London in 1895,
to promote international co-operation with permanent bureau there.
Sixth meeting at Budapest in 1904.
International Association for the Progress of the Social Sciences.
Formed at Glasgow in 1860. Met in 1862, at Brussels; in 1864, at
International Conference of Paris for the Teaching of the Social
Sciences, in 1900. Created " La Commission permanente internationale
de PEnseignement Social," with a permanent seat at Paris.
L'Institut international de Sociologie. Founded at Paris in 1893.
La Federation Feministe Internationale. Has an " international
Le Congres International Feminin. Organized at Paris in 1878. Met
there again in 1889.
International Convention of Women. First meeting held at Wash-
ington in 1888.
International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Issues a monthly bulletin
styled the Jus Suffragii, from Rotterdam.
WORLD POLITICS AND ECONOMICS
International Eastern Question Association. Met at London, Feb-
ruary 3, 1906.
The Interparliamentary Union. Organized in 1889, at Paris. 2,000
members (1907). Fourteenth Conference at London, July 23, 1906.
Permanent bureau since 1892, at Berne.
International Congress of Economic Expansion. Held at Mons in
International Association of Fairs and Expositions. Met at St. Louis
International Zoological Congress. At sixth meeting, in 1904,
adopted an international code of zoological nomenclature. Meets at
Boston in August, 1907.
International Congress of Ornithology. Held at Paris in 1900.